Demographic bonus or planet threat? Why Indonesia is at the center of population debates and solutions.

ICFP15 IndonesiaWhile many conferences come and go, the news that Indonesia will host the 2015 International Conference on Family Planning (ICFP) is important. It’s important for family planning and it’s important for Indonesia and the Asia Pacific region. Family planning, long neglected in many parts of the world, is now experiencing something of a resurgence, especially in Indonesia. And this comes not soon enough. With population pressures contributing to climate change, disease pandemics, resource constraints and conflict, with no hyperbole at all population planning could be said to be the key to the greatest challenges and opportunities facing our planet.

Indonesia has long been considered one of the leaders in population planning, halving its fertility rate between 1976 and 2002. After that a combination of financial pressures and political inaction led to a drop in resources. This has changed thanks to new government policies combined with a USD240 million investment in the newly created Indonesia Health Fund by the Gates Foundation, Tahir Foundation and eight other Indonesian businesspeople. As in many parts of the Asia Pacific region, Indonesia faces the challenges of social norms combined with access to technologies and public financing. Indonesia considers its large, young population to be a “demographic bonus”, a stance that could be seen to be at odds with a drive towards population growth reduction. However recently it signed an MOU for a new $40 million family planning program with Johns Hopkins University.

The issues facing the ICFP include creating demand for contraceptives, access to and quality of services; youth needs and participation; the demographic dividend; engaging and countering faith based organizations; financing; and accountability and advocacy. Simply put, the primary question facing the ICFP and its participants should be: how can we work together to make good quality family planning services and products freely accessible and desirable to those who need them? Tulodo looks forward to seeing you at the ICFP.

Sex is fun. Ini caranya…

temantemanlaki1Sex is fun, right? Tapi juga ada bahayanya. Untungnya, ada seks yg fun dan aman. Bagaimana caranya?

Menurut, aktivitas seksual yang aman tidak memiliki risiko penyebaran HIV atau penyakit lain. Gunakanlah pembatas untuk mencegah kontak dengan darah atau cairan seksual. Pembatas buatan yang paling umum adalah kondom untuk pria, juga ada kondom buat perempuan. Cairan pelumas dapat meningkatkan stimulasi seksual. Pelumas ini juga mengurangi sobeknya kondom atau pembatas lain. Yakinkan bahwa anda menggunakan pelumas dari bahan dasar air, bukan minyak. Fantasi, masturbasi, obrolan seks, dan pijat non-seksual juga aman. And it’s all fun!!! For more information, click here:

Social and behaviour change in Papua New Guinea

Port Moresby 11May15Tulodo is in Port Moresby for a few days as part of its research project funded by Australia’s DFAT. So far we’ve had useful meetings and found an interesting variety of organisations working on social and behaviour change. Here is a selection of a few with some of their programs and initiatives:

We look forward to completing the research and getting back here to PNG again. Let us know if you have any suggested additions for our list.

Cold turkey better than hot pharma for smoking cessation

cold-turkeyIt turns out most people quit smoking without any assistance, despite the push by big pharma to sell their products and services. While some people think cold turkey implies there are no “interventions”, years of efforts to change behaviours and social norms have probably produced the effect of an intervention on those who choose to give up without help.

Mini insight on social networks and behaviour change

Social networks – and the social support provided through them – can improve a person’s ability to gain access to new connections and information as well as to identify and solve problems. If this support can help to reduce uncertainty or help to produce desired outcomes, then a sense of personal control will also be enhanced, including to change behaviours.

How social marketing can ensure the success of clean cooking programs in Indonesia

Indonesia’s Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, together with the World Bank, announced a multi-phase program to introduce affordable, biomass-fueled cookstoves to the 24.5 million families – or 40 percent of households across Indonesia – who still use traditional biomass, mostly firewood, for cooking.

For a stove program to succeed in Indonesia, we must frame the intervention to focus on marketing behaviour change for clean cooking. If we focus only on manufacturing and selling units, the program will lose focus on consumers’ needs and wants. Evidence from the Tulodo-led 2014 review of behaviour change and clean cooking shows how this impacts demand, sustainability and scale. Stove sales are still core to success, however ensuring correct and sustained use is critical to Indonesia enjoying the full health, environmental and economic benefits of clean cooking.

The challenge in marketing cleaner stoves in Indonesia is the creation of value in the minds of the consumers and their communities. Value can be both intrinsic and extrinsic; it can include the direct health and economic benefits as well as social and other value. Central to marketing is the idea of exchange (cost vs. benefit) that provides the foundation for the relationship between the consumer and a brand. Effective social marketing, which is the application of marketing techniques and tools to change individual behaviours for the benefit of a community, has six key elements:

  1. The importance of customer orientation, rather than top down approaches, putting the individual at the centre of the intervention;
  2. Insight based on formative and behavioural research, using proven theoretical approaches;
  3. Clear and measurable behavioural goals for an intervention, not broad policy priorities or political statements;
  4. An understanding of the consumer’s barriers and benefits to the change, leading to creation of intrinsic and extrinsic value, often through the creation of brands, for which the intended recipient is willing to exchange their resources (money, time etc);
  5. A mix of methods for communications activities, e.g. media and traditional forms of communication, as well as adjustments to price and promotion of products, services and behaviours; and
  6. Take into account competition from opposed interests and behaviours as well as from other public issues.

Segmentation is an important component of marketing as it clearly defines an intervention’s target group(s) demographically, geographically or attitudinally (using psychographics). Consumers can be segmented by their propensity to adopt an innovation (‘innovators’, ‘early adopters’, ‘early majority’, ‘late majority’ and ‘laggards’). Another way is by their desire to convert to the new behaviour. Simple demographics are not sufficient for segmentation, these must be behavioural. Segmentation helps the marketer to develop archetypes or personalities that enable a program to be targeted to the needs of different groups of consumers.

Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands in public policy are the associations that individuals hold for behaviours, or lifestyles that embody multiple behaviours. Since many clean cooking interventions involve products, services and behaviours, e.g. purchase of an improved stove and its fuel and their consistent use, change can require more than just affecting consumer choice. This makes the use of effective branding strategies a key consideration for a clean cooking program in Indonesia.

Journey to scale: the Tulodo review included case study programs that achieved scale by reaching a “tipping point” where the new clean cooking technology became the norm. An example is Indonesia’s transition to LPG, where the government learned from early problems by building a national regulatory framework and reaching out to change agents in beneficiary communities. Interventions should take into account relationships and context at the individual, interpersonal, community and national levels. The recruitment of change agents (especially as early adopters) and the use of cooking demonstrations, are keys to success.

A successful clean cooking program needs to ensure the availability of accessible and appealing financing options. New stoves are often a large investment for the targeted households and therefore creative and realistic ways should be developed to enable and facilitate the purchase. Financing options include subsidies, micro loans, trials and rent-to-own programs. An example comes from the Shell Foundation Room to Breathe project in India, which initially fell short of the sales momentum needed to achieve scale and impact. The project subsequently negotiated partnerships with microfinance institutions and sales increased significantly.

The combination of these elements – segmentation, branding, change agents and financing – as part of a social marketing program will help produce a movement for cleaner cooking in Indonesia. This movement will result in increased sales of cook stoves, and more importantly their correct and sustained use. This will help ensure that Indonesia enjoys the health, environmental and economic benefits that cleaner cooking has to offer.

New report on use of behaviour change in clean cooking interventions for economic, health and environmental impact

Front coverA new report (available below) from a team led by Tulodo’s Nick Goodwin has found promising evidence for the effectiveness of behaviour change approaches in clean cooking interventions. Despite decades of effort, around 2.8 billion people still rely on solid fuels to meet domestic energy needs. There is robust evidence this causes premature death, chronic disease as well as wider economic, social and environmental problems. There is a growing body of evidence that behaviour change interventions are effective to reduce harm from unsafe and dirty cooking practices such as household air pollution and loss of forests.

The project reviewed the use and effectiveness of behaviour change approaches in cleaner cooking interventions in resource-poor settings. The authors synthesised evidence of the use of behaviour change techniques (BCTs), along the cleaner cooking value chain, to bring positive health, economic and environmental impacts and outcomes. 48 articles met the inclusion criteria, which documented 55 interventions carried out in 20 countries. A scorecard of behaviour change effectiveness was developed as part of deeper analysis of a selection of case study projects. Although behaviour change approaches have a strong track record, more application and evaluations are needed to establish stronger evidence for their use in cleaner cooking interventions.

NB: The report was funded by DFID and the full reference is: ‘Goodwin, N.J., O’Farrell, S.E., Jagoe, K., Rouse, J., Roma, E., Biran, A., & Finkelstein, E.A. (2014), The Use of Behaviour Change Techniques in Clean Cooking Interventions to Achieve Health, Economic and Environmental Impact: A review of the evidence and scorecard of effectiveness, HED Consulting, London.’

Clean Cooking Behaviour Change Study – Full Report

Executive Summary

Main Report


Appendix D – Case Studies

Appendix E – Scorecard of Behaviour Change Effectiveness

Appendix G – Full List of Interventions