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Rapid survey on COVID-19 behaviors, social, and economic impact on communities in Bone District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

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Weekly Findings Report 

Week 1, 23-24 April 2020

Snapshot of Findings

1. Background

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a virus first identified in Wuhan, China and reported to the WHO in December 2019. In January 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 a global health emergency. Most people only experience mild respiratory illness symptoms. However, some people can experience severe symptoms, including pneumonia, resulting in lung damage and death (Sani, Mariska, & Prasetya, 2020). COVID-19 is more dangerous for older people and those with pre-existing medical conditions, such as diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease (Liu et al, 2020). The first case was reported in Indonesia on 2 March 2020 and on 13 April the government declared a national disaster. On 10 April, the government initiated a Large Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB) policy started in Jakarta, including closing schools, workplaces, restricting movement and closing public places. The local, Indonesian and global effects of Covid-19 have an impact on people’s lives, families, communities and economies.

Bone consists of 27 kecamatan (sub-district), 335 desa (villages), with Watampone as the capital. Bone has 751,026 people, the most populous in South Sulawesi Province. Similar to many regions, Bone has engaged in Covid-19 management and prevention. By 23 April 2020, a total of 17,145 people have been tested with zero confirmed cases; 9 patients under treatment (Pasien Dalam Pengawasan/PDP); 7,645 under surveillance (Orang Dalam Pantauan/ODP); and 282 people at risk (Orang Dalam Risiko/ODR) (Task Force of COVID-19 Prevention in Bone). Health promotion efforts conducted by the government include cleaning with disinfectant, distribution of face masks, and hand sanitizer. In 2019, as part of its BERANI program, UNICEF commissioned Tulodo to manage a project in Bone to prevent child marriage and improve menstrual health. The project staff and networks are being used to implement this study.

 2. Objectives

This study aims to answer the question: what is the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia over time? It explores how communities have responded, including any changes in health behaviours (e.g., use of face mask, practicing handwashing with soap, and social distancing) and how this outbreak has affected their economic status. We also explore their exposure to communication channels and campaign messages. This study also provides recommendations for partners and stakeholders in Bone to consider.

3. Methodology

This cross-sectional study uses a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods, conducted weekly from 23 April to 15 May 2020. This enables us to track changes from week to week and also over the life of the study. The quantitative survey is conducted via phone and online. We use snowball sampling methods to recruit participants via phone, while for online we distribute it through our partners. The total target sample is 450 respondents. For the qualitative study, we will conduct 15 interviews via phone.

4. Results

Below are the results from the first week of data collection (23-34 April 2020). A total of 89 respondents joined the study (20 via phone and 69 via online). These results are preliminary and subject to change.

4.1 Sample characteristics

4.2 Behaviors

Figure 1. Health behaviors related to COVID-19

4.3 Impact of COVID-19

Figure 2. Economic, social and personal impacts of COVID-19 on the community

4.4 Communications

4.5 Social support given and received

5. Recommendations

These are the priority recommendations for stakeholders in Bone to consider:

The second wave of data collection will be conducted from 27-30 April 2020. We will update the report on a weekly basis.

Dowload report: Findings Report Covid19-W1-27April2020


Gugus Tugas Penanganan Covid-19. (2020). Update data Penanganan COVID-19 Kabupaten Bone. dated 23 April 2020:

Liu, K., Chen, Y., Lin, R., & Han, K. (2020). Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: A comparison with young and middle-aged patients. The Journal of infection, S0163-4453(20)30116-X.

Sani, T.P., Mariska, S,., Prasetya, V.G.(2020), How vulnerable are the elderly to COVID-19?

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