Do young people want to work in agriculture? What are the barriers and benefits for them? What can be done to enable and support young people to work in agriculture? How has COVID-19 affected young people in agriculture? These are just some of the questions that Tulodo will be answering in a new mixed-method research project commissioned by PRISMA.
Agriculture in Indonesia continues to be a significant contributor to household income, export revenue and is a primary pillar of the national economy. In rural areas, where 63% of the poor live, agriculture contributes to over 40% of livelihoods. Yet BPS, in its 2018 Inter-Census Agriculture Survey, reported less than 12% of young people below the age of 34 have entered the sector. Such a low participation rate raises concern that the numbers of farmers will decrease over time, affecting national agricultural sustainability and food security.
Although the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting everyone regardless of age, social and economic status, the most vulnerable, such as young people, are likely to be hit the hardest. Even in the best economic times, youths are already facing higher unemployment and underemployment rates compared to adults (Global Employment Trends for Youths, ILO, 2020). Young workers are more likely to enter casual work arrangements with little or no social protection, and more likely to have their hours cut or laid off during the economic crisis of COVID-19 pandemic.
To support young people in agriculture and help them build resilience during and after the COVID-19 crisis, it is necessary to understand their behaviors, choices, and decisions. Tulodo will conduct two studies. The first is a rapid survey of COVID-19 impact on 400 young farmers in East Java, and the second is mixed-method behavior research with young people in agriculture where we will survey 400 young people across four kabupaten in East Java, and conduct 102 interviews of young people and stakeholders. Using Behavior Centred Design framework, Tulodo will use thematic analysis based on the COM-B framework of behavioral determinants, develop three case studies and recommendations. We will discuss preliminary findings with communities and PRISMA stakeholders to help ensure local relevance and application of the findings.
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The Australia-Indonesia Partnership for Promoting Rural Incomes through Support for Markets in Agriculture (PRISMA) is a multi-year development program working to accelerate poverty reduction through inclusive economic growth. PRISMA adopts a market systems development approach by partnering with key stakeholders to improve agriculture market efficiency and sustainably benefit the poor. The program aims to achieve an income increase for a total of 1,000,000 smallholder farming households by 2023. It operates in six provinces of Central Java, East Java, West Nusa Tenggara (NTB), East Nusa Tenggara (NTT), West Papua, and Papua. PRISMA is funded by the Government of Australia through DFAT.
Tulodo is a consulting, project management and incubation agency specializing in social and behavior change. We help clients to solve environmental, health, governance, education, technology, human rights, microfinance, water, safety and many other issues. We provide services in research, strategy, design and development, management, capacity building, marketing and communications, evaluation and fundraising. Tulodo is a different kind of organization. We have the client service, results focus and creativity of a marketing agency. We provide the expertise, research and capability development of a university. And we bring the social focus, community and passion of a non-profit organization. We’re as capable with mobile solutions, big data and user centred design as we are with community mobilization, capacity building and partnership. Tulodo has a presence in Indonesia, Australia and Timor-Leste, as well as partners throughout the Asia Pacific region and globally. We believe that government, community, business, non-profit, industry and multilateral organisations should have access to proven expertise, no matter what the project size.